Cervical stenosis is an uncommon but potential cause of female infertility. With cervical stenosis, the cervical opening is narrower than it should be and, in severe cases, may be completed closed. This can interfere with sperm getting to the egg and complicate fertility treatments like insemination or in vitro fertilization. To understand how cervical stenosis can cause infertility, you need to understand the cervix.
Suarez, A. At coitus, human sperm are deposited into the anterior vagina, where, to avoid vaginal acid and immune responses, they quickly contact cervical mucus and enter the cervix. Cervical mucus filters out sperm with poor morphology and motility and as such only a minority of ejaculated sperm actually enter the cervix. In the uterus, muscular contractions may enhance passage of sperm through the uterine cavity. A few thousand sperm swim through the uterotubal junctions to reach the Fallopian tubes uterine tubes, oviducts where sperm are stored in a reservoir, or at least maintained in a fertile state, by interacting with endosalpingeal oviductal epithelium.
The cervical os is part of the female reproductive located in the pelvis. It is the opening in the lower part of the cervix between the uterus and vagina. There are three main parts of the cervix:. Depending on the stage, the position of the cervix will constantly change, sometimes moving higher and sometimes moving lower. During ovulation , the cervix will be high and positioned nearer to the top of the vagina.
Martyn, F. McAuliffe, M. Wingfield, The role of the cervix in fertility: is it time for a reappraisal? Knowledge regarding the role of the cervix in fertility has expanded considerably over the past 20 years and in this article, we propose that it is now time for its function to be reappraised.